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The full title of this book is An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations, and it was first published in 1776. Smith delved into why some nations were more successful than others. The basic fundamentals of modern economics can be found here, from supply and demand to a definition of wealth and where it springs from. He discussed the division of labor, how specializing in smaller pieces of a task makes things more productive. Smith became known as the "father of modern economics" because of this book.
Much as Smith advocated for a free-market approach, he also felt that government had its (limited) place, namely to provide for defense—of the consumer as well as the country. Smith was very pro-market, not pro-business. He was anti-monopoly and “crony” capitalism.